Computer organization is the study of the internal structure and design of computers. It encompasses the physical components of a computer, such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, and input/output devices, as well as the way these components interact to perform tasks. The evolution of computers has been a gradual process that has led to the development of powerful and efficient machines that are capable of performing a wide range of tasks.
EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
The FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1940-1956) , known as the vacuum tube computers, were developed during the 1940s by the British engineer “John Ambrose Fleming”. These computers used vacuum tubes as the primary electronic component, which were used to amplify electronic signals. These computers were large, expensive, and required a lot of power to operate. They were primarily used for scientific and military applications. The first general-purpose programmable electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), built by”J Presper Eckert and John V Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. The ENIAC was 30-50 feet long, 30 tons weighted, contained 18000 vacuum tubes, 70000 registers, and 10000 capacitors, and it required 150000 watts of electricity, which makes it very expensive.
Later, Ekart and Mauchly developed the first commercially successful computer name UNIVAC(Univeral Automatic Computer) in 1952.
- These computers were designed by using vacuum tubes.
- These generations’ computers were simple architecture.
- These computers calculate data in a millisecond.
- This computer is used for scientific purposes.
- The computer was very costly.
- Very large in size.
- It takes up a lot of space and electricity
- The speed of these computers was very slow
- It is used for commercial purposes.
- It is very expensive.
- These computers heat a lot.
- Cooling is needed to operate these computers because it heats up very quickly.
The SECOND GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1956-1963) , known as the transistor computers, were developed during the 1950s by three American physicists “John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley”. These computers replaced the vacuum tubes with transistors, which were smaller, more reliable, and required less power. This allowed for the development of smaller and more affordable computers, which were used for a wider range of applications. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals or opens or close a circuit. It is invented in bell labs, The transistors become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. The invention of transistors replaced the bulky electric tubes from the first generation of computers. Transistors perform the same functions as a Vacuum tube, except that electrons move through instead of through a vacuum. Transistors are made of semiconducting materials and they controlled the flow of electricity. It is smaller than the first generation of computers, it is faster and less expensive related to the first generation of computers. The second-generation computer has a high level of programming languages, including FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL(1958), and COBOL(1959).
- It is smaller in size as compared to the first-generation computer
- It used a less electricity
- Not heated as much as the first-generation computer.
- It has better speed
- It is also costly and not versatile
- still, it is expensive for commercial purposes
- Cooling is still needed
- Punch cards were used for input
- The computer is used for the particular purpose
The THIRD GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1964-1971) , known as the integrated circuit computers, were developed during the 1960s by “Jack Kilby”.These computers used integrated circuits, which are small semiconductor devices that contain multiple transistors on a single piece of material. These ICs (integrated circuits) are popularly known as chips. A single IC, has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors built on a single slice of silicon.This development made computers smaller in size, low cost, large memory, and processing. The speed of these computers is very high and it is efficient and reliable also.This allowed for even smaller and more affordable computers, which were used for a wider range of applications, including business and personal use.
- These computers are smaller in size as compared to previous generations
- It consumed less energy and was more reliable
- More Versatile
- It produced less heat as compared to previous generations
- These computers are used for commercial and as well as general-purpose
- These computers used a fan for head discharge to prevent damage
- This generation of computers has increased the storage capacity of computers
- Still, a cooling system is needed.
- It is still very costly
- Sophisticated Technology is required to manufacture Integrated Circuits
- It is not easy to maintain the IC chips.
- The performance of these computers is degraded if we execute large applications.
The FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1971-PRESENT) , known as the microprocessor computers, were developed during the 1970s and It is developed by four inventors named are “Marcian Hoff, Masatoshi Shima, Federico Faggin, and Stanley major”. The first microprocessor named was the “Intel 4004” CPU, it was the first microprocessor that was invented. These computers used microprocessors, which are integrated circuits that contain a central processing unit (CPU) on a single chip. This allowed for the development of even smaller and more affordable computers, which were used for a wide range of applications, including business, personal use, and gaming.
- These computers are smaller in size and much more reliable as compared to other generations of computers.
- The heating issue on these computers is almost negligible
- No A/C or Air conditioner is required in a fourth-generation computer.
- In these computers, all types of higher languages can be used in this generation
- It is totally also for the general-purpose
- less expensive
- These computers are cheaper and also portable
- Fans are required to operate these kinds of computers
- It required the latest technology for the need of making microprocessors and complex software
- These computers were highly sophisticated
- It also required advanced technology to make the ICs(Integrated circuits)
The FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (PRESENT AND BEYOND) , known as the artificial intelligence (AI) computers, were developed during the 1980s. These computers were designed to mimic human intelligence and were used for a wide range of applications, including natural language processing, image recognition, and decision-making.
- These computers are smaller in size and it is more compatible
- These computers are very powerful and cheaper in cost
- It is obviously used for the general purpose
- Higher technology is used
- Development of true artificial intelligence
- Advancement in Parallel Processing and superconductor technology.
- It tends to be sophisticated and complex tools
- It pushes the limit of transistor density.
The SIXTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS, known as the quantum computers, are currently being developed. These computers use quantum bits (qubits) instead of classical bits, which allows them to perform complex calculations much faster than traditional computers.
- Extremely high processing power and speed.
- Advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities.
- Extremely large storage capacity.
- High level of connectivity and integration with other devices and systems.
- More advanced and sophisticated security measures.
- High cost of development and maintenance.
- Dependence on complex and constantly evolving technology.
- Limited availability and accessibility to some areas of the world.
- Greater potential for misuse and abuse of advanced capabilities.
- High energy consumption and potential for environmental damage.
Overall, the evolution of computers has been driven by advancements in technology and the need for faster, smaller, and more affordable machines. Each generation of computers has brought new capabilities and uses, and has opened the door for new possibilities in the future.
The evolution of computers has been a gradual process that has led to the development of powerful and efficient machines that are capable of performing a wide range of tasks. The first computers were large and expensive, and could only perform simple mathematical calculations. Over time, computers have become smaller, more affordable, and more versatile, making them accessible to a wide range of users. Today, computers play a vital role in our daily lives and have revolutionized the way we live, work, and communicate.