CONCEPT AND MEANING OF ORGANIZATION
An organization refers to a formal social group that is deliberately created and maintained to achieve some intended goals. In other words, an organization is a place where a group of individual with different skills and background are brought together to perform specific duties. Their tasks are supervised and coordinated by managers.
CONCEPT AND MEANING OF BEHAVIOR
Behavior is a way of action. It is what a person does. More precisely, behavior can be defined as the observable and measurable activity of human being. It can include anything like decision making, handling of machine, communication with the other people, reaction or response to an order or instruction.
CONCEPT AND MEANING OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR (OB)
- Organizational behavior is the study of the human behavior in an organization. Organization cannot be thought without human resources but human resources do act in the different ways. Human resource is the most dynamic resources among all resources of the organization because of its feeling and interpretation. No two individual are likely to behave in the same manner in a particular work situation. Managers should be able to predict and expected behavior of an individual in group. Thus, it is essential to know the way people interact within groups.
- The main objective to the study of organizational behavior is to apply scientific approach to manage human resources.
- Different theories of organization behavior are used for human resource management purpose to maximize the output from individual and group members. This study is most commonly applied to create more efficiency in business organization
DEFINATION OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR (OB)
STEPHEN P ROBBINS, A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structures on behaviour within organisations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an Organisation’s effectiveness.
LUTHANS, Organizational behavior can be defined as the understanding; prediction and management of the human behavior affect the performance of the organizations.
DAVIS AND NEWSTROM, The study and application of knowledge how people act or behave within organization. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behavior of people in all types of organizations such as business, government, school and service organizations.
NATURE AND SCOPE (FEATURES) OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
- A SEPARATE FIELD OF STUDY : Organizational Behavior is a separate field of study. Many researches and analysis have been done in this field. But it is not still accepted as a science. There is no foundation of basic concepts that may guide its development as a science. Therefore, it will be appropriate to call it a field of study rather than discipline.
- IT IS AN APPLIED SCIENCE : The aim of OB it to solve problems of organizations related with human behavior aspect. Therefore, applied researches are concentrated, in place of fundamental researches. Though many of the researches may be carried in laboratory, but the behavior of an individual cannot be analyzed so. Therefore, Organizational Behavior is both science as well as art.
- AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH : Organizational behavior is essentially an interdisciplinary approach to study human behavior at work. It tries to integrate the relevant knowledge drawn from related disciplines like psychology, sociology and anthropology to make them applicable for studying and analyzing organizational behavior.
- A NORMATIVE SCIENCE : Organizational Behavior is a normative science also. While the positive science discusses only cause effect relationship, O.B. prescribes how the findings of applied researches can be applied to socially accept organizational goals.Thus, O.B. deals with what is accepted by individuals and society engaged in an organization. Yes, it is not that O.B. is not normative at all. In fact, O.B. is normative as well that is well underscored by the proliferation of management theories.
- A HUMANISTIC AND OPTIMISTIC APPROACH : Organizational Behavior applies humanistic approach towards people working in the organization. It, deals with the thinking and feeling of human beings. O.B. is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent, creative and productive. It also realizes that people working in the organization can and will actualize these potentials if they are given proper conditions and environment. Environment affects performance or workers working in an organization.
- A TOTAL SYSTEM APPROACH : The system approach is one that integrates all the variables, affecting organizational functioning. The systems approach has been developed by the behavioral scientists to analyze human behavior in view of his/her socio-psychological framework. Man's socio-psychological framework makes man a complex one and the systems approach tries to study his/her complexity and find solution to it.
IMPORTANCE / NEED
- OB provides a road map to our lives in organizations.
- The field of 08 uses scientific research to help us understand and predict organizational life.
- OB helps us influence organizational events.
- OB helps an individual understand himself/herself and others better.
- A manager in a business establishment is concerned with getting things done.
- OB is useful for maintaining cordial industrial relations.
- UNDERSTANDING EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION
Perception is the factor leading to attitude and behavior of people. It is the way in which people understand and think towards people, things, events and situation. OB provides sufficient knowledge to employee in group and organization. OB provides particular antecedents (background) cause behavior. This helps to identify controllable and uncontrollable antecedents of behavior.
- CONTROLLING HUMAN BEHAVIOR
OB provides knowledge to understand predict human behavior. It borrows theories from various disciplines so that overall characteristic of employees and change them as desired. Managers thus, can easily maintain good working environment to improve the effectiveness and productivity.
- BETTER INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
OB helps to understand the perception, attitude and behavior of people involved in different responsibilities of organization. It helps managers to understand problems at individual level, group level as well as organizational level. Misunderstanding can be solved promptly so that mutual understanding and respect can be maintained. This helps to maintain good industrial relation.
- EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
OB suggests number of tools and techniques to satisfy individual according to their needs and interests. OB identifies individual differences and similarities with understanding people at different levels. Such techniques motivate employees. Motivated employees increase the organizational effectiveness.
- BETTER UTILIZATION OF MEANS
Organizations invest large capital in employee selection, training and development, reward management and HR maintenance. If it is done without understanding individual needs and interest, such activities may not work for purpose. OB helps managers to understand individual correctly so that required and effective programs can be initiated to increase effectiveness. Thus, OB increases in utilization of organizational means