The President of India is the head of state and the first citizen of the country. The current President of India is Droupadi Murmu. The President is elected by an Electoral College consisting of members of both houses of parliament and state legislative assemblies. The President plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Indian political system, and the position is held in high esteem by citizens of the country.
In India, the President is elected through an indirect election process, which means that the President is not elected directly by the people, but rather by an Electoral College. The Electoral College consists of:
1. Members of Parliament, which includes both the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and Rajya Sabha (Upper House).
2. Members of Legislative Assemblies of all Indian states and Union Territories.
The total number of votes in the Electoral College is 549, with the value of each vote being determined based on the proportion of the population represented by the Member of Parliament or Member of Legislative Assembly.
The election of the President takes place through a secret ballot, with the voting being conducted by means of a single transferable vote system. This means that voters rank their preferences for the candidates, and if no candidate gets a majority of votes in the first round, the candidate with the lowest number of votes is eliminated, and their votes are transferred to the remaining candidates based on the second preference of those voters.
The candidate who receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College is declared the winner and becomes the President of India. The election is conducted by the Election Commission of India, which is an independent constitutional body.
POWERS OF INDIAN PRESIDENT
- EXECUTIVE POWER : The President of India is the head of the Union Executive and has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and other high-ranking officials. The President can also issue executive orders and directives to the government and has the power to pardon or commute sentences of convicted individuals.
- LEGISLATIVE POWER : The President of India has a limited role in the legislative process, which includes the power to summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament. The President also has the power to sign bills into law or to send them back to Parliament for reconsideration.
- DIPLOMATIC POWER : The President of India represents the country in international forums and conducts diplomatic relations with foreign countries. The President also has the power to appoint ambassadors and other diplomats to represent India abroad.
- CEREMONIAL ROLE : The President of India serves as the ceremonial head of the country and participates in important national events such as the Republic Day parade and other state functions.
- EMERGENCY POWER : The President of India has emergency powers under the Indian Constitution, which can be used during times of national crisis, such as war or internal disturbance. The President can declare a state of emergency, suspend civil rights, and impose central rule in states.
FUNCTIONS OF INDIAN PRESIDENT
- EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS : As the head of the Union Executive, the President of India has several executive functions, such as appointing the Prime Minister, Ministers, Governors of States, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, and other high-ranking officials. The President also has the power to issue ordinances, promulgate rules and regulations, and make appointments in various government bodies.
- LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS : The President of India performs various legislative functions, such as summoning, proroguing, and dissolving the Parliament. The President can also address both Houses of Parliament and can send messages to them. The President also has the power to sign bills into law or return them to the Parliament for reconsideration.
- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS : The President of India has some judicial functions, such as appointing Judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts, and removing them if necessary. The President also has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, and commutations of sentence to convicts.
- DIPLOMATIC FUNCTIONS : The President of India represents the country in international affairs, such as appointing ambassadors and sending envoys to foreign countries. The President also receives foreign envoys and represents India in international conferences and summits.
- MILITARY FUNCTION : The President of India is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces and has the power to declare war or conclude peace, subject to the approval of the Parliament.
In conclusion, the President of India is an important constitutional office with various powers, functions, and responsibilities in different areas, including executive, legislative, judicial, diplomatic, and military affairs. The President plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Indian democracy and government and represents the country in international forums. The President's powers and functions are defined by the Indian Constitution and are aimed at ensuring the smooth functioning of the government and upholding the democratic principles and values. Overall, the President of India is a significant institution in the Indian polity, and their role and responsibilities are crucial for the effective functioning of the Indian state.