Organisational Behaviour : Key Elements , Levels Of Analysis , Contributing Disciplines , Models


here are four key elements in organizational behavior. There are people, structure, technology and the environment. Each o f the four elements o f organizational behavior will be considered briefly. 



People are the main component of any organization that has to be managed. Every individual has a personal goal to be achieved.

Organizations must identify the need spectrum of individuals and take suitable steps for its fulfillment to enable them to perform effectively so that they complete their allotted task in time.


There are two types of organizations, formal and informal.

Informal organizations do not have a specified structure.

Formal organizations are build based upon the objective set for it. 

Organizational structure in such organization is hierarchical in nature, with people at each level having their own objectives.


Managing technology is an important job of any management. It is an important element of any unit. Selection of technology, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance is important and no compromise should be made in procuring latest or advanced technology.


When we talk about managing people in the organization, what we have to study and manage is the influence of culture and its impact on the individual.

Study of the environment is very wide and encompasses economic, cultural, social, government rules and regulations, legal aspects, political climate, demographics and its impact.


  • INDIVIDUAL LEVEL : Individual Level In individual level, organizational behavior involves the study of learning, perception, creativity, motivation, personality, turnover, task performance, cooperative behavior , deviant behavior , ethics, and cognition. At this level of analysis, organizational behavior draws heavily upon psychology, engineering, and medicine. A study of organizational behavior at the ndividual level of analysis might focus on the impact of different types of overhead lighting on such factors as productivity and absenteeism.
  • GROUP LEVEL : Group Level At the group level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the study of group dynamics, intra- and inter group conflict and cohesion, leadership, power, norms, interpersonal communication, networks, and roles. At this level of analysis, organizational behavior draws upon the sociological and socio-psychological sciences A study of how different personality types correspond to different leadership styles and levels of results operates at the group level of analysis. 
  • ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL : Organizational Level At the organization level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the study of topics, such as, organizational culture, organizational structure, cultural diversity, inter-organizational cooperation and conflict, change, technology, and external environmental forces. At this level of analysis, organizational behavior draws upon anthropology and political science. 


Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines, mainly psychology and social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.


  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Social Psychology
  • Anthropology
  • Political Sciences
  • Economics


Psychology is the study of human mind to measure, explain and sometimes to change behavior. Study of fatigue, boredom, and other working condition was the initial contribution by industrial psychologist in OB which is now more concentrated in decision making processes, performance appraisal, reward management, attitude measurement, employee-selection process, training and development, motivation, work design and job stress. OB concerns regarding the study of individual psychology and behavior at work.


Sociology is the area of study of people in relation to their social environment or culture. In order to understand and measure the group behavior in different organizational settings and to estimate their impact in organizational performance, contribution to sociology is being fruitful. Specially, OB uses the contribution of sociologists in studying organizational culture, organizational structure, organizational technology, communication, power, and conflict in group and organizational level analysis.


Social psychology is the area of study of psychology in social setting i.e. group dynamism with the influence of individual influence. In OB, contribution of social psychologists is greatly shared specially for the study of group behavior, power and conflict. In order to measure, understand and change attitudes, identifying communication pattern and building trust by social psychology is must.


Anthropology is the area of study of people and their activities at work. This science focuses on cultures and environments to understand the fundamental differences in values, interest, attitudes and behaviors because of such culture and environments. In order to study the impact of national culture and organizational culture in activities, motivation and performance of employees, OB gets support of the contribution of anthropology.


Contributions of political scientist are significant to the understanding of behavior in organizations. Political scientists study the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.They contribute to understanding the dynamics of power centers, structuring of conflict and conflict resolutions tactics, allocation of power and how people manipulate power for individual self-interest.


Economics contributes organizational behavior to a great extent in designing the organizational structure. Transaction cost economics influence the organization and its structure. Transaction costs economics implies costs components to make an exchange on the market. This transaction cost economics examines the extent to which the organization structure and size of an organization varies in response to attempts to avoid market failures through minimizing production and transaction costs within the constraints of human and environmental factors.Costs of transactions include both costs of market transactions and internal coordination.A transaction occurs when a good or service is transferred across a ‘technologically separable barrier” Transaction costs arise for many reasons.So we can assume that there are various types of disciplines which involve organizational behavior. They, directly and indirectly, influence the overall activities of OB.


OB Model proposes three types of variables (inputs, processes, and outcomes) at three levels of analysis (individual, group, and organizational).

The model proceeds from left to right, with inputs leading to processes and processes leading to outcomes. Notice that the model also shows that outcomes can influence inputs in the future.


1. Inputs

2. Processes

3. Outcomes


Inputs are the variables like personality, group structure, and organizational culture that lead to processes. These variables set the stage for what will occur in an organization later.


Processes are actions that individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes.


Outcomes are the key variables that you want to explain or predict, and that are affected by some other variables.


  1. What are the key elements of organizational behavior and how do they impact the functioning of an organization?
  2. What is the significance of managing people in an organization, and how can organizations fulfill the needs spectrum of individuals to improve performance?
  3. What is the difference between formal and informal organizations, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each type?
  4. What is the role of technology in organizational behavior and how can management ensure that the latest and most advanced technology is procured and utilized effectively?
  5. How does the environment impact organizational behavior, and what factors should be considered when studying the influence of culture on individuals in an organization?
  6. What are the levels of analysis in organizational behavior, and how do they differ in terms of the topics studied and the disciplines drawn upon?
  7. What are the major disciplines contributing to the field of organizational behavior, and how do they each contribute to our understanding of human behavior in organizations?
  8. What is the role of psychology in organizational behavior, and how can the study of individual psychology and behavior at work improve organizational performance?
  9. How does sociology contribute to our understanding of group behavior in different organizational settings, and what impact does it have on organizational performance?
  10. What is the significance of social psychology in organizational behavior, and how can the study of group behavior, power, and conflict help to improve organizational outcomes?